The design service life of most buildings is often 30 years, although buildings often last 50 to 100 years or longer.The New American Home® (TNAH) 2008 has been certified through the ENERGY STAR® program.Cast-in-place concrete is transported in an unhardened state, primarily as ready-mix, and placed in forms.Ready mixed concrete is proportioned and mixed off the project site. Weir, "Automatic measurement of complex dielectric constant and permeability at microwave frequencies", Proc. Key words: Energy Policy, Externality, Nigeria Reference . The model aims at determining the least cost energy planning policy path for Nigeria with the least environmental damage. Self-consolidating concrete (SCC) does just as it says; it consolidates itself as it flows into place without separating.
 Ref.2 above Abstract: Metamaterials (MM) have been able to make their position strong in the world of electromagnetic in the past years. Smith, et al., "Electromagnetic parameter retrieval from inhomogeneous metamaterials", Physical Review E 71, 036617, 2005.
Construction and demolition waste contribute to solid waste going to landfills.
The production of new building materials depletes natural resources and can produce air and water pollution.
Cast-in-place concrete is the material of choice for slab-on-ground and foundations because of its long-term durability and structural support.
It is also used in all types of buildings for either structural support as beams and columns, as well as for floors, walls, and roofs.